Why Philip VI
At one time Philip did provide a refuge for David II of Scotland in 1334 and publicly declared himself a champion of David interests. David was the king of Scotland between 1329 to 1371. He became the king of Scotland after his father’s death at very tender age of five. During his early life, Sir Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray was appointed to be the Guardian of Scotland by what was referred to as Act of Settlement of 1318. When he died he was replaced by other person called Donald, Earl of Mar who was elected by an assembly of the magnates of Scotland at Perth.
Unfortunately, he was killed in the Battle of Dupplin Moor and he was replaced by Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, a sister to King Robert I. But he did not serve long on this position before he was taken captive by English led by Edward III at Roxburh in the year 1333 and replaced Sir Archibald Douglas who died in the Battle of Halidon Hill same year. The Battle of Dupplin Moor was the worst defeat of Scottish ever since the Battle of Falkirk. This battle was fought between the supporters of the junior David II the son of Robert the Bruce against the rebels who supported the Balliol claim to be a king.
All this was happening because when death of Robert I occurred in 1329, left Scotland with only four-year- old King David II who could not rule at this time. It was during this time Edward Balliol the son of John Balliol; John I of Scotland staged a challenge to take the throne. But the did not have a genuine claimed as they were just rebels who were called ‘The Disinherited’ because they had lost their land due to Battle of Bannockburn. These labels had English allies support.
This was clearly seen due to the relationship that developed between Henry Beautmont of Scotland, the chief among those who were considered disinherited in Scotland. He was considered to be a key figure in Anglo-Scots wars of 13th and 14th Century that were referred to as Wars of Scottish Independence. He was veteran campaigner who was involved in every major battle starting from Battle of Falkrik to that of Halidon Hill that helped Edward Balliol to get the crown instead of David II of Scotland. Due to his promptings he made Balliol to leave his home in France and join him in England and settle there.
Beaumount made a visit to Edward III with aim solicit battle support for Sir Edward Balliol that he may prevail to take his heritage in Scotland and his request was honored as it is recorded in Brut Chronicle. Following the Scots’ defeat at Dupplin, Edward Balliol was crowned to be the King of the Scots at the Scone by the English and his Scots adherents . But by December same year, Balliol was forced to flee for his life to England but he managed to return the following year through collaboration invasion force that was led by English king Edward III in the Battle of Halidon.
This victory of Balliol that marked his second return to Scot’s land in 1333 forced David and his queen to flee for safety that landed them into France where they were received very graciously by French King Philip VI. By this hospitality accorded to David by King Philip VI, it really made Edward III furious and by 1336 they were real enemies. The enmity between King Edward III and King Philip VI reached climax when King Edward III offered Robert III of Artios protection who was formerly one of Philip’s trusted advisers. History records that at one time he was Philip’s trusted adviser for some time. But this did not stay long.
When his grandfather died –Robert II of Artois, he was involved in a succession of dispute with his aunt Mahaut over the County Artios that was occupied by a Frankish noble family. Countess Mahuat was Robert II’s daughter and a nephew to Robert III and therefore this made Robert III to represent his claim of his father Philip. However, the dispute was settled in Favor of Countess Mahaut. Upon her death, this claim was passed to her daughter Jeanne II, Countess of Burgundy where the matter of the succession rose again. But this time Robert III introduced a forged paper in support of his claims on Artios.
When this was discovered his goods were confiscated and this made him fled the country to escape arrest and execution and sought refuge with his nephew John II Marquis of Namur. Philip VII went forth and confiscated his property, imprisoned his wife and his sons and requested the Bishop of Liege to attack Namur where Robert had sought refuge. On realizing that Philip was after him, he fled again and hid at John III place, Duke of Brabant who had married his niece. But Philip VI did not stop there, he pursued him and stirred war against Brabant and Robert had no other choice but to flee to England.
On arrival in England in 1334, he encouraged King Edward III to claim the title of King of France as descendant of Philip IV. In turn Edward III decided to make him Earl of Richmond and honored him. Philip retaliated by declaring that Edward had forfeited Aquitaine for rebellion and disobedience and this marked the start of Hundred Years War. The battle line was drawn when Philip VI claimed the right to appoint French noble as rulers of Gascony and Guyenne and in response Edward III claimed to be the right king of France and England. Indeed the actual fighting did not begin until 1337 when Edward invaded France.
Despite the fact that English armies were smaller than those of French, they had superior organization and tactics that made them have strong military force. On other hand Philip did not have relatively well organized army as that of his opponent which cost him dearly and also to his successors. Edward III initial strategy was to form strong alliances against France which saw him spent large amount of money. The first major battle of the Hundred Years War was the Battle of Sluys of 1340. This battle happened around the harbor of Sluys in an inlet on the border between Zeeland and West Flanders.
It was a dramatic naval victory as recorded for Edward III. The French ships were immobilized by chaining them together while English ones were able to move freely. This made English navy to utterly destroy about two hundred French ships with only thirty French ships that managed to escape. The next war moved to Brittany which caused the death of Duke John III in 1341 that resulted into a dispute of succession between John de Montfort who was the younger brother of John III and Charles of Blois who married to the daughter of the older brother.
In 1342, Charles Blois was able to occupy the Brittany land with help of French through Philip VI. The year 1346 was marked with decisive battle at Crecy whereby Edward invaded France and won the battle. Edward after this was not financially stable to follow up his victory nor was Philip himself sufficiently capable to attack English again. But in 1347 Edward again attacked Calais that put Philip in a situation of begging the States General for money. The situation worsened when Black Death disaster struck Europe and brought havoc in socio-economic status of France.
Due to persistent warring period and the final defeat at Crecy and Calais compounded by the reluctance of Philip’s subject to finance the war sufficiently and plague, all these were torments in the final years of Philip’s reign just before his death in 1350. After the reign of King Edward III and Philip VI the battle still continued that was marked by period of temporary truces. Since the start of the war in 1337 until the battle of Orleans that took place in 1428 and 1429 English did win several victories that included decisive battles such as battle of Crecy, Poitiers and Agincourt .
English used new fighting tactics that assured them great success that combined forces of longbow men with dismounted men-at-arms. However, in 1429 with siege of Orleans French emerged victors with Joan of Arch, who was a prominent figure in this battle by providing a relief force which resulted to the defeat of the English and in the next twenty five years of engagements, French won the battle and drove English out of the land. Therefore, Hundred Years of War did not just start with King Edward III and Philip VI but it was a latent conflict that existed long time before their reign.
This started when Charles the Simple when he allowed Viking of Rollo to settle in French land and thereby becoming his vassals. When Vikings latter called Normans conquered England through William the Conqueror, preceding kings established themselves there while they were still they vassals to Kings of France and did intermarry. This made these kings of England to occupy much land of France which made French to attempt reclaim back. Also due to issue of legitimacy of French Crown that was caused by loose of direct male rule, England kings were prompted to claim it.
Accompanied with personal differences between King Edward III and Philip VI, these were factors which catalyzed the Hundred Years War. Bibliography Bartlett, R. England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075-1225. ISBN 0199251010, 9780199251018, Oxford University Press, 2002, p634. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. The New Encyclopaedia. ISBN 0852294433, 9780852294437, Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1987, p642. Houts, V. E. The Normans in Europe. ISBN 071904751X, 9780719047510, Manchester University Press, 2000, p 200. Gravett C.
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Poitiers: High Point of the Hundred Years’ War. History Today Magazine, Vol. 56, September 2006, p 22. The New York Times. The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind. ISBN 0312376596, 9780312376598, Macmillan, 2007, p507. The Hundred Years War: Overview. Retrieved on 16th December 2008 from http://ehistory. osu. edu/osu/archive/hundredyearswar. cfm? CFID=5623031&CFTOKEN=26075910&jsessionid=ea30a2391fd08bbd0e467b612b4f2317e653,2001, 2001, para. 4. Rickard, J. Edward III, King of England, 1327-1377. RetrtiSample Essay of PaperDon.com