Asia and Australia
This study examines the factors or determinants of successful female franchisors and entrepreneurs in Asia. The following research questions will be answered: 1. What are the determinants influencing a female’s decision to become a franchisor and entrepreneur? and 2. What are the determinants to become a successful female franchisor and entrepreneur? The findings of the study would argue that the motivations for female franchisors are more on intrinsic factors while female independent entrepreneurs are more on extrinsic factors.
The entrepreneurial orientation of female independent entrepreneurs are high while female franchisors are low. The work/family balance orientation of female franchisors showed a lower level than the independent entrepreneurs. Also, the female independent entrepreneurs have a higher level of education than its female franchisor counterparts and the independent female entrepreneurs are younger than the female franchisors.
The findings of this study showed that female independent entrepreneurs had or have more extensive advantage than the female franchisors in terms of prior industry experience, prior access to business networks, and external support networks. Since the motivations for female franchisors are more on intrinsic factors while female independent entrepreneurs are more on extrinsic factors, it implies that in selecting female franchisors, intrinsic factors should be given special consideration.
Since the entrepreneurial orientation of female independent entrepreneurs are high while female franchisors are low, it is suggested that in selecting female franchisors, existing independent female entrepreneurs should be given preference. Finally, the female independent entrepreneurs had or have more extensive advantage than the female franchisors in terms of prior industry experience, prior access to business networks, and external support network. Thus, existing female independent entrepreneurs should be given preference in selecting female franchisors in the future. Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Businesses which are owned by females are increasingly getting to be important to employment in many countries. Today more small businesses in Asia are owned by women and the increase in female ownership of small business currently exceeding the growth rates of male owned enterprises. Previous research investigating organizational choice behaviors would give the notion that female entrepreneurs are typically risk aversed individuals running small businesses mainly within traditional retail and services sectors (Sheridan and Conway, 2003; Still and Timms, 1999).
Generally, their motives socially are deemed more important than desired financial outcomes which led some scholars to suggest that female small business owners are “satisficers’ who limit growth in their small firms in an attempt to control their future direction of their businesses (Brusch and Hisrich, 1991; Still et al. ,1990). On the one hand, the increase of female owned enterprises could be limited by external factors as many women face difficulty in getting capital, training, and management advice (Boden and Nucci; Still and Guerin, 1991).
As franchising offers and efficient method of business development by providing expedient access to capital, market knowledge, and managerial talent, it is quite odd that there are not that much female franchisors within the Asian franchising sector. As Weaven et al. writes about female entrepreneurs in Australia: More recent research suggests that female entrepreneurs are not a homogenous group with some entering small business to realize goals of wealth creation and rapid business growth. In particular, these entrepreneurs are more likely ‘pulled’ into self employment with the view to grow and replicate their business concepts.
Franchising may appeal to this group as it offers an efficient method of expanding the size and reach of the business with minimum capital outlay so as to accelerate network growth, market penetration, and brand building. However, the participation rates of women in franchising are lower than in independent small business operations and currently, the number of women franchisors in Australia is unknown. Furthermore, the academic literature examining the motivational incentives for females to become franchisors is limited.
In addition, due to the unique characteristics of franchise networks, any discussion that postulates symmetry of motives between individuals entering franchise networks as opposed to other forms of self-employment may be unrealistic and untenable (Weaven et al. 2006). As such, franchising should be a logical route for women in Australia as well as in Asia because of the packaged efficiency offered by franchising. Even though there is disagreement in the literature as regards the location of entrepreneurial activity in franchise networks (Anderson et al.
, 1992; Bradach and Eccles, 1989; Grunhagen and Mittelstaedt 2005; Knight, 1984; Rubin, 1978), there is some consensus that franchisors share certain similarities with independent business owners in terms of their risk postures, achievement motivation, creativity, and entrepreneurial orientation (Kaufmann and Dant, 1998; Morrison, 2000). Thus, this research concentrates upon the reasons influencing individuals (females) to become franchisors. This study evaluates the differences between female entrepreneurs which is separate from male entrepreneurs.
This is due to the fact that gender processes, motivators, and factors that influence women’s business model cannot be fully explained by current male-based research (Morris et al. , 2006). As such, the current research would contribute to the small business literature through investigating the motivational incentives influencing female entrepreneurs to become franchisors. PROBLEM STATEMENT This study will examine the factors or determinants of successful female franchisors and entrepreneurs in Asia. As such, the following research questions will be answered:
3. What are the determinants influencing a female’s decision to become a franchisor and entrepreneur? and 4. What are the determinants to become a successful female franchisor and entrepreneur? RESEARCH PURPOSE The purpose of this research is to mainly to examine the determinants for successful female franchisors and female independent entrepreneurs in Asia. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study are the following: 1. To investigate the factors that influences females to become franchisors or independent entrepreneurs in Asia; and 2.
To assess the factors that determine a successful female franchisors female independent entrepreneurs in Asia form) will be conducted in Singapore by interviewing four female franchisors and four female independent entrepreneurs. The interview will explore the areas/characteristics of motivations, entrepreneurial orientation, work/family balance, education level, age, prior industry experience, prior access to business networks, and external support networks. THE OUTLINE AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY This study is organized into four chapters.
Chapter one discussed the introduction and background of the study, it also presents the statement of the problem, research purpose, research objective, the outline and contributions of the research study, definition of terms, acknowledgements. Chapter two reviews the literature which provides the initial discussion since the methodology of this study is literature research, and Chapter three explains the methodology of the study. Chapter four presents the analysis of the study, and finally Chapter five summarizes and concludes the study.
The contribution of this study to theory is that there is yet no research regarding determinants for successful female entrepreneurs and female independent entrepreneurs in Asia particularly in Singapore. As such, this study will be a big contribution since it fill this gap in gender research. DEFINITION OF TERMS Female Franchisors. Women who are engaged in going into business with a patented packaged called a franchise which usually provides the product or service, the technology, management, and marketing services which had been proven to be successful in other areas.
Independent Female Entrepreneurs. Female owners of small business enterprises. Extrinsic Factors. Motivation of entrepreneurs and franchisors usually due to external factors such as earning an income and be recognized as successful by other people. Intrinsic Factors. The motivation of entrepreneurs and franchisors to go into business due to internal determinants such as achievement, power, and competence. Achievement Motivation.
This is the motivation drive which is due to the need of people to achieve something significant in his life. Power Motivation. This is the need of an individual to acquire influence and control over other people. Competence Motivation. This is the need of an individual to be efficient and competitive in his business and work. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This is to acknowledge my classmates, professors, advisors, and all those people who in one way or another have helped me in accomplishing this research.Sample Essay of BuyEssay.org