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Biological approach

1. How might each of the four elements of the ecological approach influence a major developmental step, such as the decision marry or not to marry? The four elements of the ecological approaches in psychology are: the behaviourist approach, biological approach, cognitive approach and the psychodynamic approach. All these approaches help us in understanding human behaviour during the different stages of development. The behaviourist approach assumes that the behavior of living organisms is shaped through their constant interaction with the environment. Learning and experiences mainly determine how people view life.

When teenagers mature and become adults, they can then decide to marry or remain single. Through our interpersonal relationships, we learn people’s behaviour and how they view life. If two people find they are compatible and can life with each other comfortably, they can decide to get married. In the book, Approaches to Psychology, the biological approach assumes that behaviour has physiological consequences and that some human behaviors are inherited. As children grow up, they mature physically and begin releasing hormones that make them drawn to members of the opposite sex.

Sometimes these feelings are hard to control and when the age seems appropriate, individuals can decide to get married and freely engage in sexual activities. The psychodynamic approach by Sigmund Freud says that, “the personal experiences in a persons earlier years will determine their behavior, attitudes and emotions (Medcof, Roth & Emslie 134). ” If a person had healthy relationships with the opposite sex or someone they are attracted to, they will reach a point when they will decide to take it to the next level which is marriage.

On the other hand is a person has experienced a string of disappointments with the opposite sex, they may remain single as they believe that they may get disappointed. Another example is a woman who was raped; they may never trust someone hence will see no reason in courting any man. The cognitive approach dwells on the current events and does not dwell on the past. For example, if a two people think that marriage is what they need, at that point in time they will pack their things and go to Las Vegas, the next thing you know is that they wedded and their decision was not based on any past experiences.

2) Given the way the brain and nervous system develop, what sort of sensory environment would probably be most conducive to healthy neural development in the infant and why? The brain was designed by nature and genetics and is unaffected by the environment. Technology has enabled scientists to know how the brain works. An infant is born with brain cells but these brain cells need to link with things in the environments. In other words, the cells need to be activated so that the infant can do certain functions like sucking, laughing, yawn among other things.

The kind of sensory environment that will be conducive for an infant is that which allows them to connect with the environment so that they can grow, gain skills, be intelligent, interact with various things in the environment and become independent. Moreover, the physical environment is acknowledged in being instrumental in the success of learning, play, or intervention programs (Clements, Fiorentino 234). ’ 3) What does each theoretical perspective contribute to our understanding of human development? Be as concise as possible.

There are many theories that have been developed that have enabled human beings to understand their developmental process, behavior and personalities. o Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory- “Freud assumed that all behavior is motivated and that the unconscious is a ‘starehouse’ of motives and wishes which is further shaped by person’s experiences in life (Newman 7). ” o Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Human development- The theory talks of 8 stages that represent the periods in a child’s development from the time they are born until they die.

It is in these stages that a person’s behavior is shaped. o Jean Piaget’s Cognitive- Developmental Theory. Piagent represented four periods when children and teenagers learn to reason and interpret things in the environment so that they can live comfortably in this life. o John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth’s Integrated Attachment Theory- This theory focused on the relationship between parents and their children especially when they are still infants.

The relationship between children and their parents greatly shape how individuals interact with others. o Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development- The theory says that the different environments or surroundings of person interact with each other and an individual and contribute to the person’s development. 4) Describe an aspect of Human Development in the area of Personality and Social that is affected by both nature and nurture? Nature and nurture go hand in hand. The two can be likened to programming and reprogramming a computer.

Nurturing is bringing up a child in a certain way. Nature plays a big role in the nurturing process as it helps them discover and interpret the things around them. This can be the physical environment or hereditary traits. In the book, (Psychological Abstracts), It is stated that, developing a person’s capability is affected in many areas but the ability to regulate intense emotion for example, the likelihood of making secure relationships with others in order to develop unique personality.

An aspect of human development in the area of personality and social that is affected by nature and nurture is the shaping of a person’s behavior so that they can become better individuals. Nurturing is done by the parents who lay down the rules and regulations that should be followed while the rest of the society helps in shaping a persons behavior by using various norms and ethical standards. All this promotes a persons self worth and image

References American Psychological Association. Psychological Abstracts Published by American Psychological Association, 2000 p. 539 Clements, L. R. & Fiorentino, L. The Child’s Right to Play: A Global Approach Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, P. 234 Medcof, J. Roth, J. & Emslie, R. G. Approaches to Psychology Published by Routledge, 1979 Newman, M. B. Theories of Human Development. Routledge, 2007

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