Faith in Media
The global media market has been dominated by the nine transnational conglomerates. Eight of the giant firms are based in U. S while one is in Germany. The giant media firms especially in U. S regulate the information reported by the media firms and control most of the studios which earn them high revenue and power of dominion. Few global corporations are horizontally integrated where they control specific media book sectors like book publishing. The giant media corporations also have gained ownership of content and the means to distribute it.
The ownership of publishing content and the distribution of the books earn the global media corporations’ multibillion dollar revenues (Deluca, 1998; Compaine and Gomery, 2000, Rosmay, 2001). In the past, the nine transnational corporations mostly based in US dominated global media market. However, technological revolution in the past years had led to emergency of global commercial –media market which had created oligopoly instead of the earlier monopoly market (Compaine and Gomery, 2000).
The deregulation of media ownership and privatization of television in Europe and Asian has not actually yielded the anticipated results of democracy of ownership. In fact the deregulation of media ownership, privatization or television and new communication technologies have provided a good platform for the nine transnational conglomerates to establish powerful distribution and production networks within and in other nations which actually empower them more than nine conglomerates continue to dominate global media even after technological revolution.
However, there are other media groups that have been established which provide stiff competition to the media grants (Foerstel, 1999; Rosmay, 2001; Deluca, 1998; Wear, 2004; Hundley, Anderson, Bikson, Dewar, Green and Libicki, 2000). The largest media corporation in US times Warner (1998 revenues, $ 27 billion) is said to be getting high annual revenue which is in fact is fifty times high than the world\’s fiftieth largest media form. Most of transnational conglomerates control the contend of the media firms in terms of movies and studies by controlling cable channels and TV networks that are responsible for airing movies.
The nine transnational conglomerates include: Time Warner, Sony, News Corporation, General Electric, Disney, AT&T, Liberty, Media, Bertelsmann, Viacom and Seagram. Most of these corporations plan to invest in other countries and some have already so as to continue and yielding high revenues (Compaire and Gomery, 2000). In the 1990s, media systems responsible for airing radio programs, Television programs and newspaper were domestically owned. The face of television has changed drastically especially with the neo-liberal free market policies that allowed private ownership of media firms.
However, newspaper ownership remains a national issue. The ownership of digital satellites allows media firms to gain control of larger markets share which internal and external markets (Botterman, Bikson, Bosman, Cove Frinking and De Pous, 2001; Rosmay, 2001; Deluca, 1998). The deregulations of media ownership had encouraged eclipse of other new media firms which provide competition to the transnational conglomerates and present a potential threat to the nine giant media firms in terms of domination.
Most of the giant corporations have plans of expanding their business overseas to increase revenues and eliminate the possibility of been outflanked by its competitors (Botterman, Bikson, Bosman, Cove Frinking and De Pous, 2001; Foerstel, 1999; Rosmay, 2001; Jodziewicz, 2006). Media conglomerates press for policies that facilitates their domination of media markets throughout the world. The aim of giant media firms is to remain dominant and to eliminate the possibility of competition for new media firms that may eclipse with new technological development in the communication.
However, most countries for example Norway, Denmark, Spain, South Africa and others have maintained strong tradition of protection of domestic media and cultural industries though government subsidies. Korea has maintained the small domestic film industries running through government subsidies and this has helped to preserve the Korean cultural values that are exhibited in the film industries. Therefore, political influence of media firms has actually helped to resist domination by the transnational conglomerates.
The UN intervention which supported culture exemption from global trade deals also protect against domination by the conglomerates (Deluca, 1998; Burton; Botterman, Bikson, Bosman, Cove Frinking and De Pous, 2001; Rosmay, 2001). Most of the nine giant media firms have been involved in multibillion dollar deals which they earn through merchandize sale as is evident with wall Disney media. In 1995, Walt Disney agreed to pay $19 billion for the US media giant capital cities/ABC. The deal approximated for the sales tag. Of UNICEF’s extra cost of meeting worldwide need for basic health and nutrition and primary education.
Disney media made advertisements concerning women, perfume and love which boosted the sale of perfumes by billion dollars (Wear, 2004; Deluca, 1998). The lipstick imperialism advocating for cultural imperialism in the Disney media was opposed by communication scholars and activists because it advocated for women to change their appearance yet the activists and the scholars defend indigenous cultural identity and economic independence. The technological revolution in the media has led to the eclipse of many independent media firms and promotes worldwide communication.
The installation of digital satellites that promotes dissemination of communication throughout the world h as actually had an impact on community and political development. Communication through the web has made information available for rural development (Foerstel, 1999; Burton, 2001; Botterman, Bikson, Bosman, Cove Frinking and De Pous, 2001; Botterman, Bikson, Bosman, Cove Frinking and De Pous, 2001; Jodziewicz, 2006). Rural development involves mobilization of local resources by utilizing the innovation brought by the technological development.
In the media which with technological development has made it possible for the local communities to get information, people adopt other cultures that advertised in the media. This is evident in the American culture where the dressing of young females is highly influenced by the media fashion shows (Foerstel, 1999). Technological revolution allows citizens to see news that relate to another country concerning their political, social and economic issues. The dissemination of information through the media has assisted in imitation of desired qualities from people of the other countries which may result in community development.
Most community social workers who spearhead community development draw their inspiration from community development projects that have been undertaken by other countries whose evidence may be in form of video tapes or from internet, websites (Foerstel, 1999; Hundley, Anderson, Bikson, Dewar, Green and Libicki, 2000). Availability of technological revolution allow people to watch live news on political rallies or political seminars that are held in other countries which prompt immediate political action by the affected state.
For example, the G8 meeting held by the eight powerful European states could be seen by all the state in live broadcast. When the delegates in the G8 meeting discussed their intention about the outstanding debts in the developing countries, the media was responsible for disseminating the information and this brought out political uproars from the less developing countries who actually plead for the cancellation of debts so that the countries would realize economic growth and development (Foerstel, 1999; O’Neil, 1998; Foerstel, 1999; Hundley, Anderson, Bikson, Dewar, Green and Libicki, 2000).
Technological revolution has led to development of local languages media projects which can reach to local communities intensively. The media firms are able to disseminate information even to the illiterate in the society and promote community development because it promotes participation in all aspects like producer consumer and many others. The information from media has sometimes led to conflicts in the society. This happens when the information is associated with politicians who in most times are bound to change their speech when confronted by different circumstances which conflict with their motives.
Media is very significant in development and to promote democracy in a state. Faith in the media has always been a key factor towards making sense of any media information (Jodziewicz, 2006; Burton, 2001). Availability of technology that allows digital messages and photographs which can verify the truth & reality of the information passed has led to cultivation of faith in the media. Independent media corporations owned by individuals that are free from political influence even instill more faith in the information they disseminate.
Faith in the media has also been strengthened the democracy in journalism that has been supported by legislative law. Competition of media firms has also strengthened the virtue of integrity in the media firms. Firms that are highly accused of libel lose public trust and this may lead to insolvency of the firm, Media firms are k known to incite the public through the information they disseminate especially information concerning politics. This often happens when the media firms are owned and controlled by politicians. Loyalty to said politician may cost public faith in the media.
Most educational and political activists use the media to reach many people so that community and political development may be achieved (Burton, 2001; Jodziewicz,2006). Media group ownership has significant effects on political cultural and social discourse. Group ownership of media firms especially by major media groups affect the politics especially I f the media firm has political reference of some parties in the politics. The impact on politics by the media is usually evident during national campaigns following general elections.
Group ownership dictate the firm supports in politics and due to the influence of the media on the society, this also affect the choice and attitude towards politics in the society. Media group ownership dictate what cultural values are passed to the society. For example, media ownership by the giant media firms in US helped disseminate American culture in the nations where the media is aired. Local media ownership helps to promote the local culture and preserve it. The Korean government promoted the local film industries through subsidies with the aim of preserving the local culture (Compaire and Gomery, 2000).
Media ownership is responsible for the social course of action in a society. Media is major socialization agent through the information movies and advertisements aired. Advertisements that are aired by media firm will depend on the media group ownership. Local media will promote advertisements that encourage social conformity according to locally accepted values. References Botterman, M. , Bikson, T. , Bosman, S. , Cave, J. , Frinking, E. , & De Pous, V. (2001). Public Information Provision in the Digital Age: Implementation and Effects of the U. S. Freedom of Information Act.
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