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MP3 is the common term for MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3. It is a digital audio encoding format and makes use of a type of lossy (a type of compression algorithm) data compression. It is a very widespread audio format for consumer audio storing, along with being a real model of digital audio compression for the transmission and playback using the digital audio players. MP3 was planned out by the Moving Picture Expert Group which came into creation when a couple of engineers of from different places got together. By 1992 it had gained approbation as an ISO / IEC standard (Dvorak et al, 114).

MP3 is used for compressing audio and it is intended so as to significantly lessen the quantity of data which is necessary for the representation of the audio recording but along with it continue to seem similar to the original uncompressed work (Pal, 15). However, although it is not found to be faulty by the usual listeners, it is in reality not thought to be greatly reliable by audiophiles. It is possible to construct an MP3 file at higher or lower bit rates, which would result in a higher or lower quality.

The idea behind the compression is that the accuracy of the components of the sound which are thought not to be within the making out ability of usual people is lowered. This is generally called perceptual coding (Katz, 160). Within itself it offers with a depiction of sound by making use of psychoacoustic models which discards or reduces the accuracy of those parts that are not much clear to the human ears. Also, it records the rest of the data efficiently. In effect this is more or less like the theory that JPEG uses, which is an image compression format. History

The idea of compression first came up in the beginning of the 1970s. Professor Dieter Seitzer, from Erlangen-Nuremberg University in Germany (Reilly, 177), was the one to bring it up when he attempted at resolving the difficulty faced when compressing music over phone lines. In the beginning he was not given the finance for the research he wished to conduct, thus he set up a group of technicians and scientists who wished to research into this area of tackling the trouble of audio coding. In 1979 Professor Seitzer managed to develop a first digital signal processor that could be used for the compression of audio.

Improvement of the device was continued and later Karlheinz Brandenburg, who was the professor’s student, improved and boosted the fundamental notions for perceptual audio coding, utilizing the hearing properties of the human ear like it was explained in psychoacoustics. Later, in 1987, there was a research association created between “Erlangen-Nuremberg University and the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits within the structure of the European Union-funded EUREKA project EU147 for Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)”.

This joint project ventured into creating a working synchronized codec by making use of several digital signal processors (DSPs). Due to the codec test for LC-ATC could be performed under real world situations. By 1989 Brandenburg completed his doctoral hypothesis and Fraunhofer is recorded to have said that it contained several features that would be present in an ultimate MP3 coder. The OCF coder was the foundation of MP3. In 1991, Fraunhofer team integrated whatever contributions were made by Hannover University, AT&T, and Thomson, and enhanced the OCF algorithm.

Thus, there was a creation of a strong audio codec ASPEC. This was suggested for the approaching MPEG audio model which was initiated in 1988. Altogether MPEG got 14 offers including ASPEC and MUSICAM. There were some official tests conducted after which MPEG persuaded MUSICAM and ASPEC to unite together. It was a family of three coding systems; layer I was a reduced intricacy alternative of MUSICAM, layer II was an optimized style of MUSICAM while layer III was chiefly established on ASPEC (Fischer, 144).

Because of its reduced intricacy, DAB chose layer II for the audio layout for its digital audio communications services. Even though Fraunhofer’s ASPEC intricacy was greater, the codec offered the greatest coding competence and so it turned out to be the means of transmitting superior quality audio by means of ISDN phone lines. As evidence of idea, Fraunhofer produced and traded a small amount of the ASPEC studio device to expert users like the many radio stations.

As it was a first application, it was triumphantly utilised for the reliable transmission of music by means of ISDN between the communications studios. The development of ASPEC to the conclusive MP3 (MPEG, layer III) codec consisted certain technological coordination with other intended MPEG-1 audio coders plus the add-on of combined stereo coding, that permits the coder to act properly on monophonic signals along with effectively handling stereo data. The later item was created by Juergen Herre for MP3.

By 1995, MP3 got its names after the poll that was conducted by Fraunhofer researchers. After three years there was the period of MP3 portability, initiating with Diamond Multimedia’s Rio in the United States and Saehan Information System’s MPMAN in Korea. These were the first head-phone stereos to make use of solid-state flash memory. The resultant reputation of MP3 portables made several firms to provide with compressed music portables, and thus it allowed for the growth of extra audio codecs for utilisation in computers as well as in portable equipments.

Since the suppliers of the United States instigated headphone stereos in 2000, MP3 became an enlightening occurrence. File Sharing File sharing refers to the transferring of digital files from one computer to another. This is mostly done by means of some network or the Internet. There has to be a provision and / or reception of files in file sharing, and this takes place by means of a mid server or directly between the consumers. In most of the businesses, the system is considered to be divisive because it is capable of breaching the copyright rules and rational property privileges.

The use of file sharing became common in the 1990s (Waterman, 259) due to the progress of the Internet. Whilst several of the industries employ file sharing in order to allow the workers as well as the customers to easily retrieve the required information by means of a network, there are also many businesses that have attempted at regulating and limiting the use of file sharing for the copyrighted data. Peer to peer networks (P2Ps) are a prevalent kind of file sharing. In this system the users can transfer the files right from some other computer by making use of software.

Users can employ web-based sharing for downloading and uploading from a server. Napster was an initial kind of P2P network (Ghosh, 363). It was a file sharing service used for music and it was common since its launch in 1999. However, in 2001 it was prohibited from dealing with copyright music. From that time the recording and film industries have attempted at developing tools that would enable them in the prevention of file sharing of patented files. However, the users have been continuously getting away with those restrictions (Spinello & Tavani, 42).

Problems Alexander argued that technology influences barriers to entry; therefore, there would possibly be a major modification in the concentration indices during the period of MP3 technology. Even though mp3 technology has the ability to lower allocation and production expenses, it has an added expense of fighting piracy. The subject of piracy is natural to the online music distribution industry, and together with the decreased expenses of production and distribution of MP3s, it offers with a strive in the music industry’s obstacles to entry.

Considering from a market concentration point of view, it is not clear at the moment that which element would turn out to be the chief one. Perchance the technology is at the moment yet new and the barriers of entry are much therefore the effects of this technology are not obvious as yet (Blanchette, 14). Today, MP3s are commonly in use by the teenagers on their computers and most of them use it unlawfully. Therefore, the distributors are continually being pressurized by the makers of the music. Loss of millions of dollars is taking place because the MP3 technology has enabled the people who can access the Internet to get them.

The main thing here is that most of the people are not buying them from shops. For this reason there is the Internet police out there to catch such unlawful distributors of music and prevent them from distributing the files further. Current Industry There have been modifications happening in the music trade and they are reaching far beyond the ones that are directly concerned with the production of music. The method through which the people hear, and eventually buy music is continuously changing.

Current technological improvements in sound recording and making have significantly lowered the barriers of entry into the record trade and this has allowed the autonomous artistes to have the liberty of recording and distributing their production without requiring the assistance of chief record labels. This has allowed them to get dominance at the time when they are acquiring recording deals, plus it has also lessened the power of the large companies who were formerly dominant in the industry. The first chief music distributing site was MP3.

com but it had to shut down due to court case. Considering the industry’s viewpoint, this site should have symbolizes a completely unthreatening business form. The users were supposed to pay a specific fee to subscribe and for that they could download the music and songs. This model came along with several whims and twists because of which it was not appealing to the music industry at that time. For example, the industry had no authority over this website, thus the rents from music were to be shared. Plus, after the files had been downloaded the industry could not control over them.

Now, with the advent of MP3 technology, it is possible to obtain music and songs without actually going to a shop. And that also for free. This is a real matter of worry for the music industry. The IFPI President at the MIDEM recording industry convention in Cannes in 2003 said that online theft is responsible for just a single album selling greater than 10 million copies globally in the last year. According to the 2002 Music Piracy report of the IFPI, “piracy is the greatest threat facing the music industry today”. It also said that the major type of piracy, as recorded by the industry is the file sharing system.

Conclusion Due to MP3 technology people have become able to store a huge number of songs on an undersized device, look for them using the categories such as album, artist, title, genre, and they can even generate play lists mechanically. This has lead to revivification of a whole lot of population’s fondness of music. Now a person need not look for a CD if he wished to listen to some song. All the music files are accessible on a single click. There are even tiny mp3 players that can hold an invariably large number of music files and can be heard as and when wished, along with being extremely portable.

Mp3 is not simply a technology. It is an astounding happening which has allowed the musicians to reconnect to the music lovers, speakers to their listeners, creators to their audience. However, there is the issue of copyright and piracy that has to be dealt with, and which has lead to a major problem. Not considering the pros or cons of MP3s, it cannot be doubted that now we are progressing onwards and getting away from the discs towards the kind of music that is very much portable and considered to be just another kind of computer file.

The coming generation of music listeners would probably find compact discs to be weird and might possibly speculate on how their fathers had tackled with music in that kind of form. Work Cited Alexander, Peter. J. “New Technology and Market Structure: Evidence from the Music Recording Industry. ” Journal of Cultural Economics. 18. 2 (1994): 113-123. Blanchette, Kasie. “Effects of MP3 Technology on the Music Industry: An Examination of Market Structure and Apple iTunes. ” Holy Cross. 23 April 2004. 18 April, 2009. <http://www. holycross.

edu/departments/economics/website/honors/blanchette_thesis. pd> Dvorak, John, C. , Chris Pirillo & Wendy Taylor. Online! The Book. New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR, 2003. Fischer, Walter. Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology: A Practical Engineering Guide (Signals and Communication Technology). US: Springer, 2008. Ghosh, Sukumar. Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach (Computer and Information Sciences). 1st ed. US: Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2006. Katz, Mark. Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music (Roth Family Foundation Music in America Book).

1st ed. CA: University of California Press, 2004. Pal, Nirmal. The Agile Enterprise: Reinventing your Organization for Success in an On-Demand World. 1st ed. US: Springer, 2005. Reilly, Edwin, D. Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology. CA: Greenwood Press, 2003. Spinello, Richard, A. & Herman T. Tavani. Intellectual Property Rights in a Networked World: Theory and Practice. US: Information Science Publishing, 2005. Waterman, David. Hollywood’s Road to Riches. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2005.

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