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Life span Final Exams

As more people these days are getting older, it comes with it the learning that there are special joys and triumphs that the aging years offer. There is the leisurely pace, opportunities to embark on travels, pursue long postponed projects or hobbies, and therefore remaining active and involved as much as possible. It is estimated that as more people have lengthier life spans, by year 2030 approximately 71 million older adults or 20% of the population will comprise of older adults (Bryant, Altpeter, & Whitelaw, 2006).

This research done by Bryant’s team reveals that chronic illnesses and degenerative diseases replaced acute illnesses and infectious diseases as leading causes of death to the elderly; however, much of the health promotion interventions today are tailored to meet these challenges that accompany increased life expectancy (Bryant, Altpeter, & Whitelaw, 2006). The limitations in this particular stage of development in human individuals include physical and cognitive decline and illnesses that easily beset them.

It is therefore at these levels that many of the interventions developed by man are addressed concerning the older adults’ difficulties and more possible limitations that can be prevented or delayed as much as possible. Health care promotion and interventions refer to programs that are especially tailored to a certain group of individuals and their needs and unique challenges. In the aging years, the limitations just mentioned are important issues to consider where these programs are concerned.

Are they effective and realistic, and are they affordable and reachable as well? Health Care as one of these strategies include the incorporation of Senior Games, Promoting Health behaviors and Disease Prevention, Reducing the Need and Demand for Medical Services in the Older population, Eating and Nutritional Support in the Nursing Homes, Alcohol and Drug problems and their interventions, the Influence and impact of Spirituality among the Older adults and Social Support from various sectors of Society (Acree et al.

, 1995). Many of these abovementioned essentials are contributing to the overall mental health of the older adults thus, making them more enthusiastic and hopeful as they face the remaining years of their lives. They seemed more fulfilled and needed as they are less dependent and more participative of their milieu. Competence in a way may be relative when viewed in the context of the middle adult in his lifestyle around these years.

His understanding about himself may probably more enhanced since he knows that he has years of experience behind him and that these years are sufficient enough to back him up for many years to come. For some people, competence also may not be enough a term to describe their abilities because they already are approaching their waning years, and those younger than them, with enough free time to pursue training and education many make them insecure and feel that they have less to offer. 2.

Some research provides evidence that cognitive training can maintain and often improve cognitive skills, what factors might hinder and/or limit the motivation of older people to begin such cognitive training? Give an example The following can influence adults specifically in the learning experience in an unhelpful way. The Negative Learning Environment includes the fact that: 1. some adults can move toward prescribed educational settings with anxiety and feelings of high or low self-efficacy.

Their method to new learning milieus can be prejudiced by how they assess or evaluate the new experience. A case in point: given two adults in a classroom where an exercise is about to begin, one individual may interpret the assignment in such a way that leads to a feeling of ‘excitement’, while another individual interprets the task in such a way that leads to the feeling of ’embarrassment’. It is a fact that the way the individual interprets the situation and the consequent emotion that arises, will affect the kind of action the individual is to take (Burns, 1995, p.

16). Burns considers that such assessments, together with the labels such as ‘fear’ or ‘anxiety’ can direct some learners to psychologically disengage from the source of distress that is the learning experience. Conversely, when coupled with labels such as ‘excitement’ or ‘challenge’ the learner is conducted to take measures that focus on the undertaking. 3. Describe and explain two things that you can do as a grandchild to support the successful aging of one of your grandparents. Consider the effects on widowed vs. married grandparents

Because they are precious people who are sensitive and in need of support in the critical years of their lives, grandparents need the understanding of children or grandchildren who know that they will never be abandoned when times get rough such as when one of the spouses die. Grieving is easier when children and grandchildren are with the grieving person. The other way of easing loneliness and lengthening the lifespan is when one feels needed in an encouraging way. People in their aging years are in most cases individuals constantly aware of their mortality.

However, the more the aging person is exposed to a variety of influences, his/her attitude with regards to his/her own death and more so with a spouse or loved one who’s gone on ahead will be greatly impacted. Research reveals that profound loneliness is one of the greatest struggles or burdens that a widow or widower faces especially that in countries like the United States people in their old age live away from their children or direct relatives. Although this is true, adjusting to loss is a lot different to this particular age compared to those who encounter bereavement in the younger years.

More specifically, studies show that there are certain personalities too that account for many of those who were able to cope better in the wake of the death of a loved one like the spouse. People who have high self-esteem, the more outgoing types, are said to be more resilient, although men are still at risk (mentally and physically) compared with women where gender is the issue as men tend to be more dependent emotionally on their wives (Berk, 2004 in Ferraro, 2001) and as they are less religious than women in general Berk, 2004 in Lee et al.

2001). Moreover, Caucasians versus their African-American counterparts succumb to mental illness and disturbances due to the family constellation difference: the former living more solitary existence whereas the latter have connectedness or extended families as well as church relationships (Berk, 2004 in Balaswamy & Richardson, 2001). Precisely because the most important factor that influences an individual in his/her grieving the loss of a loved one or make it more difficult for that person is the presence or absence of social support.

The aging person may have difficulty when his/her spouse dies but as mentioned in the preceding page, religious involvement, a more outgoing personality and having a sense of humor, and high self-esteem enables an older adult to withstand grief and loss (Berk, 2004 in Ferraro, 2001). 4. What are some ways couples can prepare themselves for an enjoyable retirement? How different do you imagine retirement is for a single person in late adulthood? For what situations (e. g. , economic, psychological, physical, social) must they prepare that retirees with a spouse can often be less concerned?

As is often said, “life begins at forty” (______ Sensory Changes with Aging, http://www. uatpat. org). The prospect of losing one’s hearing is alarming. When still young, people do not entertain such as a possibility. Statistics, however, show that 30 percent of people over the age of 60 have their hearing ability weakened. As people continue to age to pass more than the age of 70, the problem is getting worse. Thirty three percent of those ages 75 to 84 have hearing impairment, while 50 percent of old folks over 85 have lost their hearing altogether.

This accounts for the many adjustments a family has to face (Isbell, 2008). Conversations now at this time are difficult. It’s not easy to conduct a conversation with others when there is impairment to one’s hearing. It is embarrassing to the one with the problem, and requires patience and understanding to others (Saxon, 2008). Oftentimes, as a result, older people choose to withdraw themselves from ordinary conversations. At times, old folks avoid giving inappropriate remarks as they were afraid they have misunderstood what was said (Smith, in NIA/NIH, 2008). It usually results in isolation.

Solutions to these problems exist and available to help households to cope and thus minimize the potential problems (Saxon, 2008). Regular exercise of course helps a lot. Because of the many physical changes that occur in aging, a lot of adjustments as well are in order so that the body is better able to cope with these changes. Two major parts of a person’s physique are affected in the aging process; namely, the muscles and bones. Joints and bones’ structure become rigid with age. This causes a decrease in height, a bent posture, and hence, pronounced limitations in movements.

The prospect of these changes, however, need not hinder nor discourage a person to establish or maintain a regular regimen. Though it may now hurt to move and stretch one’s joints, to yield to inactivity will all the more result to deterioration and more agony (Smith, in http://nihseniorhealth. gov/exercise/benefitsofexercise/03. html, 2008). Because the tendency of less and less movement goes with aging, and because calcium (a necessary mineral for the bone) is not absorbed into the bones generously as when younger, the resulting consequence is the brittling of the bones, a common cause of skeletal or bone fracture among the elderly.

When ligaments connecting bones lose flexibility, it causes pain and discomfort. Older people as compared to younger ones need more cushioned shoes as the fat between the bones of the foot is becoming thinner (______Aging: physical changes). Getting old and retiring as a single person is has its advantages and disadvantages: one gets used to being alone with his/her needs only to be mindful about. However, worries on getting sick and actually being alone, experiencing how difficult it is to lay in bed and attend to many things aside from one’s health are just one of the many challenges of being a single and old person.

Hence, retirement for them is also not entirely different as the married or widowed; they must also prepare with a lot of things and people in mind. There is what people call as the art of getting old. This has probably an element of truth because getting old makes many of us seriously inferior, insecure and irritable. To grow old takes wisdom; meaning the aging physical aspects are there but to be gracious about it may help us view our mortality, accept all with humility that limitations are inevitable. Many who were once strong and athletic, the reality of losing one’s vigor seem unacceptable.

It’s hard to swallow the negative realism of aging. The simple chores that once were indeed “simple” have now become impossible tasks to some of us who were once upon a time, mighty competitors in some events in sports. Running may not be advisable anymore. Walking, the most common movement to a normal functioning individual is difficult when arthritis has already crept into his joints (Smith et al, 2008 in http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/004023. htm). Physical changes are natural occurrences of wear and tear and are included in the order of things since time immemorial (Smith, Suzanna et al in Rantanen et al, 1997).

This is one of nature’s physical laws that no matter how many technological breakthroughs have been discovered and come to the forefront of human existence, up till now, the best of these man-made intelligent inventions are not able to arrest these signs of deterioration. A senior citizen has to deal with problems such as high blood pressure, the cumulative effects of fatty deposits or cholesterol build up, some parts of the body that almost do not work anymore, and those parts that work may incur pain and a degree of discomfort (_____University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS)).

Physical activity as mentioned, have some benefits to slow down degenerative disorders but are not designed to reverse the course of aging. What is more tragic at times is, whenever people realize that the symptoms of aging are already there, it’s too late for them. They are now coping with regrets for earlier times and opportunities that had passed; these were opportunities supposed to avert and prevent the speedy physical breakdown and enjoy more quality of life in their later years. References ______Aging: physical changes. University of Iowa, Hospital and Clinics Accessed in http://www.

uihealthcare. com/topics/aging/agin4120. html April 29, 2008. Acree, Kathleen, et al. , edited by Diane Driver. 1995. Health promotion and Disease Prevention with Older Adults, Accessed April 30, 2008 < http://socrates. berkeley. edu/~aging/HPsection1. html> Bryant, Lucinda, Mary Altpeter, Nancy Whitelaw, 2006. Evaluation of Health Promotion Programs for Older Adults: An Introduction. Accessed April 30, 2008 < http://www. healthyagingprograms. com/resources/EvaluatingEBPrograms_Intro. p df Brooks, J 1995 Training and Development Competence: a practical guide Kogan Page, London. Burns, S.

1995 ‘Rapid changes require enhancement of adult learning’ HRMonthly June, pp 16-17. Knowles, M. S. 1978 The Adult Learner: a Neglected Species 2nd edition, Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, Book Division. Isbell, Lou. Physical Changes in Aging. Accessed April 19, 2007 in http://extension. missouri. edu/explore/hesguide/humanrel/gh6729. htm ______ Sensory Changes with Aging. Utah Assistive Technology program. Accessed in Uatpat. org April 29, 2008. _____University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) _____Aging : Outlline, Accessed April 29, 2008 in http://www.

baptistonline. org/health/library/agin4120. asp Saxon, Sue et al. Physical Change And Aging. A Guide For The Helping Professions, 4th Edition GNP Originally published by The Tiresias Press, Inc. Accessed in http://www. aginginplace. org/traits/sensory/ April 29, 2008. Smith, Suzanna, Jennifer E. Gove in AARP. (1990). Hearing impairment: The invisible loss. Perspectives in Health Promotion and Aging, 5 (3), 1-6. Physical Changes of Aging. in Medical Encyclopedia: Aging changes in the nervous system URL of this page: http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/004023.

htm Smith, Suzanna, Jennifer E. Gove in AARP. (1990). Looking out for older eyes. Perspectives in Health Promotion and Aging, 5 (3), 1-6. from. Physical Changes of Aging. Smith, Suzanna, Jennifer E. Gove in Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. (1997- 2005). Aging gracefully–physical activity. Retrieved April 29, 2008 from http://www. behavior. org/aging/aging_feeling. cfm from Physical Changes of Aging. Smith, Suzanna, Jennifer E. Gove in Fall Hazard Checklist (1987). Clinical Report on Aging, 1, 5. from Physical Changes of Aging National Institute on Aging (n.

d. ). Aging and Your Eyes. Retrieved April 29, 2008, from http://www. nia. nih. gov/health/agepages/eyes/htm Smith, Suzanna, Jennifer E. Gove in Rantanen, T. , Era, P. & Heikkinen, E. (1997). Physical activity and the changes in maximal isometric strength in men and women from the age of 75 to 80 years. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 45, 1534-1535. Smith, Suzanna, Jennifer E. Gove in National Institute on Aging (n. d. ). Aging and Your Eyes. Retrieved April 29, 2008, from http://www. nia. nih. gov/health/agepages/eyes/htm

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