National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA’s objectives and policy considerations have recently changed to assimilate modern considerations that are comprehensive and harmonic to people’s current and future needs. Besides, the changes are aimed at offering effective competition to the upcoming space technologies for ensuring maximum security to the people. Over the years, NASA had been accused of involving itself with projects those US citizens least identified with. As a result, there have been major disinterest as people shift to other technologies.
To add to that, the fast changing development of space aeronautics have made it to rethink its position in the global realms with reference to the overall innovative capacity (William, 2008, pp. 38-39). History of NASA and policy setting National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a state agency that is charged with public space programs in US. It is also responsible for long term civilian and military research in the department of defense.
After the launching of the first human made satellite by the Soviet in 1957, US established similar initiatives that were geared by the immediate security threats from the soviet considering the immediate ended World War II which soared worsened the relationship between US and the Soviet. In 1958, President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act which established the National Aeronautic and Space administration. Notably, NASA’s earliest programs were focused into research on space flights and mostly conducted as part of the competition with the Soviet (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007, pp. 54-58).
The main NASA motto has been “for the benefit of all” which the National Advisory committee for Aeronautics (NACA) linked to the future preparations of the Americans needs. As opposed to the main theme, scholars have questioned the overall application of the objectivity demands to the US citizens. Initially, the space shuttles used by NASA were less developed compared to the ones currently being used today. This led to initial programs like Apollo 1 and Apollo 13 ending tragically with minimal successes due to mechanical failures.
Lately, health concerns for the astronauts have demanded readdress of the technology to ensure greater levels of safety (US. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2007). As an agency of the government, NASA was established through an Act of government that saw its structures become operational since 1958. As a result, the agency is fully responsible to execute and report the progress to the government. Arguably, all the government agencies are operated on behalf of the government which have the capacity to question the execution of different mandates set out in various legislations.
However, it maintains vast autonomy in its operations that include budgetary considerations in line with its annual considerations. It is a NASA policy that management of finances for its activities and missions is executed as per the considerations and expression in the budgetary connotations. Therefore, it follows the following two rules of the federal agencies of the US; (a) It is entrusted with public funds and thereby charged with an obligation of responsibility for control as well as accounting for the expenditure.
(b) The execution of the mandates by the agency should conform to the most efficient and economical considerations that meets the mission prior established by the agency. Its budgetary allocations are considered by the congress which had reduced the NASA funding during 1990s due to expensive programs that coincided with economic recession of that period. Though highly autonomous, all of its funding demands are subject to external analysis and evaluation by the senate and the congress.
Its US $ 100 billion for the space shuttle during 1990s was considered expensive and controversial by the congress (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007, pp. 54-58). Assimilation of new prospects in NASA In the year 2006, NASA re-described its mission to pioneer space explorations that would shape the future of the young people and encourage them to venture into more exploratory and discovery systems. After the landing of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, in the year 2004, President George Bush announced the NASA’s future to exploit the resources in Mars and other planets.
Though the congress agreed to give the start up funds for the project, it had great skepticism on it. Notably, the demand for more funding and accountability of the different systems has invoked greater demands for monitoring and evaluation of the systems and accomplishments of the mission previously established (William, 2008, pp. 38-39). Arguably, global problems are fast changing due to more complex considerations that impeaches on the natural systems with greater impacts than any other time in history.
As a result, the policies of NASA have been expounded to address bulk of the natural systems surveillance and offer predictions globally. Over the last three decades, US has been rocked by major storms that have refocused the NASA’s demand to forewarn of such disasters and establish the best method to address them with minimum losses (United States. Dept. of the Air Force, 2002. pp. 104-106). Of greater importance, is the current shift to e-commerce with development of Information Technology.
This high tech operations management for business under the massive force of globalization has added the role of NASA as an important facilitator to major business operations. Therefore, majority of the US policies are currently geared towards increased interlink which makes NASA to be one of the most important government agency by supporting the others locally and internationally. Effect of competition from Russia, China, India and Europe on NASA’s policies As indicated earlier in the NASA history, it was derived as a counter force orientation towards the Soviet.
As a result, the initial basis of the National Aeronautics and Space Act was largely intended to indicate the position of US in relation to other countries (Chaikin, 1998). The notion of superiority has therefore made the agency to invoke massive programs and projects that are meant to increase the overall gap between US and other countries. However, the sprouting up of European Union, China, Japan, and India as major players in aeronautics considerations has resulted to refocusing of the NASA’s policies and objectives.
Whereas most of its policies overlooked many states by considering them to be behind technologically and crippled financially to dream of such initiatives, the reverse is taking place. Cooperation between the European Union countries has made virtually all aspects of technology possible. Through their well coordinated collective management of their resources, European Space Agency has been established with vast mandates similar or greater to that of NASA. As a result, majority of the NASA policies are directed at enhancing cooperation between the upcoming countries and economic unions to sell the US ideologies to them.
Analysts have criticized this notion by claiming that US want to extend a manipulating hand globally. Whereas this notion may be true, cooperation between these states have been invoked by individual countries as they seek assistance from US due to its long term experience with NASA in outer space (Peter, 2003, pp. 170-173). To add to that, upcoming India and Japan provoked establishment of international regulatory framework that oversees the space operations by different countries.
Notably, after the interest in space operations increased, the demand for people’s safety in the space and citizens in the earth became of great concern (Frank, 2008, pp. 76-78). International Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Outer Space has incorporated the major powers in determining the suitability and effectiveness of countries to launch space operations. However, this has also been seen as an extended hand to seal off the upcoming states from venturing into this modern technology.
Locally, by setting high standards for other players, NASA has also assimilated similar levels upon which it leads as a major example. Finally, NASA has invoked its budgetary consideration as its mandates expand to ensure it has the best systems globally. As indicated earlier, its operations are expanding to modern business operations and overall disasters management.
This has assisted in carving a niche among the competitors like India and China who are still at a very tender age (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007, pp. 61-62). Conclusion NASA objectives and policy considerations constantly changes to reflect the people’s demands and technological development that is fast impacting into the earth systems. Being a government agency, it is highly dependent on it for funding which it executes its mandates. With the modern world dynamically shifting to position various states and countries in tandem with its demands, NASA should establish a more cohesive and inclusive operations to the people locally and internationally.
It should therefore institute research into technological advancements that will see exploitation of the outer planets resources in the near future. To add to that, US should establish greater cooperation with majority of the states to ensure easier transmission of technology to them making the world to be a better place for all. Reference list Chaikin, A. 1998. A Man on the Moon. New York: Penguin Books Frank, R. 2008. The Science of Air: Concepts and Applications, Second Edition. Los Angeles: CRC Press. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007.
Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports. New York: Sage. Peter, U. 2003. Intelligent life in the universe: from common origins to the future of humanity. New Jersey: Springer. United States. Dept. of the Air Force, 2002. Air & Space Power Journal. New York: DIANE Publishing. US. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2007. “Senators Collins and Lieberman Raise Concerns about Changes to NASA Mission Statement”. Retrieved from> http://hsgac. senate. gov/public/index. cfm< William, N. 2008. Space Policy and Exploration. Washington: Nova Publishers.Sample Essay of BuyEssay.org