Philosophy of Education
Philosophy of teaching and facilitation sometimes referred to as the immediate objectives of education. Immediate objectives on the other hand are purposes which a subject at a given time must aim to achieve through the courses of study or the curriculum. Its aims constitute a very important aspect of the total education. They are more specific and they can be accomplished in a shorter period of time, maybe a day or a week. These, too, are considered goals of specialization. Philosophy of teaching and philosophy of facilitation cannot be determined apart from the purpose of society which maintains the school.
The purpose of any society is determined by the life value which the people prize. As a nation, we have been striving always for the values which constitute the democratic way of life (Demiashkevich, pp. 43-48). Theory and practice in modern education have been influenced greatly by the educational philosophy in successive interpretations of the fundamental purpose of education. Since the aims and objectives of education embody the democratic ideal to which we as a nation are committed, they cannot be achieved through a rigid system of indoctrination and control.
The applications of the principles of teaching and learning always have definite goals. If the teacher wants to obtain desired results, he should know what those goals or objectives are. The usefulness of the principles themselves can best be determined by their appropriateness to the aims and objectives sought. Our primary need, therefore, is to present and develop the philosophical and psychological aims of education (Peterson, pp. 64-69). The philosophical aims of teaching and facilitation require all public and private schools in this country to pursue, in the development of every child, regardless of color, creed, or social status.
All educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency. The study of the Constitution shall be part of the curricula in all schools (Peterson, pp. 64-69). The State shall provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth, and create and maintain scholarship for poor and deserving students.
Moreover, religion shall be taught to their children or wards, in public elementary and high schools as may be provided by law. The State shall provide scientific research and invention. The advancement of science and technology shall have priority in the national development. Furthermore, education shall aim to develop moral character, personal discipline and civic conscience, and develop the attitudes among our youth and strength moral and ethical standards. It must also impart the skills, instill the attitudes and spread the values that are essential to rapid and sustained economic growth.
The curriculum of public and private schools will emphasize scientific and technical professions, managerial and vocational skills, and the dignity of labor and standards of excellence (Demiashkevich, pp. 43-48). It can be said that the above resolution called for the restructuring of our educational system, public or private, to enhance nationalism or love of country and to achieve social goals. II. Scope and Limitations Professional philosophy of teaching and philosophy of facilitation are two of the major ground bases of education as field of profession; hence, focused study of such condition is essential.
The case study involves the subjects of philosophical perspective of education linked with the condition of determining the future trends of the system. Utilizing five aspects of contributing factors, such as standards of teaching, bilingual education, cultural diversities, special education and the public policies, we shall determine the possible implications of such factors in professional philosophy of education. The following shall be utilized in the overall study. a. ) To be able to determine and elaborate the aspects concerned and their contributions to the American education systems.
b. ) To be able to relate the current systems of education in the professional philosophy of teaching and facilitation and further utilize these factors to determine the possibilities of educational trends in the future. c. ) To be able to explain the current thinking about the future of education in the United States through the construction of problem statement that gives focus and direction and identifies the open-ended problems addressed in the body of the paper. Purpose of the Study.
The study provides an intricate new perspective of professional philosophy of teaching and philosophy of facilitation. III. Problem and its Background Philosophy of teaching and philosophy of facilitation are congruent. They rely in not only implicating end-outcomes, doing discussions and elaborating ideations, or utilizing doctrines in order held hand in analysis and implications of the contexts, and doctrinaire and indoctrinate necessary political issues, social-political, or religious nature.
Such conditions have been implicated in the philosophical environment of American education systems for the past decades. Various fields, such as Marxism, Thomisms, liberalism, humanism, secularism, pragmatism, pragmatism, classicism, essentialism, take a particular position on a variety of highly speculative issues and attempt to build some sort of practical educational system around the core ideas (Hamm 1999 p. 13). Personal resonances of the term education are shaped by a number of individual experiences.
Education can be studied from many different points of view since it is an activity, which goes on in a society with aims dependence attached on the nature of society that is taking place. Turning now to now to what philosophy of education is, it is well so remind ourselves how we began by noting that philosophy of education is a branch of philosophy and that to get a grip on how philosophers of education think and function one must become clear on what philosophy itself is (Hamm 1999 p. 13).
Education is succumbed with problems obtained from various categories and aspects wherein the prime outcomes influence the general systems and professional philosophy of education, as well as the aspects of determining the basic rights of every individual to learn (Butler, 2007 p. 4). IV. Discussion Higher education expanded after World War II, in part to meet the needs of tens of thousands of returning service members. In part to respond to the federal government, which began to fund education deemed essential to the nation’s defense in the period of Cold War with the old Soviet Union.
However, despite this growth the structure of prestige in the academic world in general, and in philosophy of teaching in particular, remained intact. The societal conditions interrelate to a significant degree on the professionalism and philosophical background of its corps of “service” professionals in sustaining and enhancing the said field of expertise, education. Professional education determines the quality of services provided. One indication of the recognition of the importance of this education is the great number of studies and papers dealing with the subject (Hoberman and Mailick, 1994 p. 3).
Although we shall deal with any technical philosophical points as and when they come up in the text, it is appropriate at this point to make one or two observations about philosophy in general and about philosophy of teaching and philosophy of facilitation in particular. A fair amount of talk is heard these days about the sterility of philosophical analysis, about how it is that once upon a time philosophers used to debate fundamental questions concerning God, Freedom, and Immortality until one day hard-headed, tough men called logical positivists came along and said that all such debates were nonsense.
Really, talk of this kind is somewhat superficial and inaccurate. There are very good grounds for thinking that a philosopher worthy of the name must indulge in a certain amount of analysis or to put it another way, must have regard to the meaning of words and concepts. Further, a great deal of evidence can be adduced to support the contention that this concern with meaning is not a recent phenomenon – that it did not first appear on the scene in the 1930s but has always been a part of the tradition of philosophizing, at least as far as the Western world is concerned (Brown and Woods, 1998 p.
3). During the initial start of the 21st century, the vents are usually are implied by a greater balance between the drive from political centralizations to see standards in schools developed and enhanced, and more decentralizations on administrations, highly placed with alternatives and choice for parents and pupils (Hamm 1999 p. 13). Philosophy of teaching and philosophy of facilitation are connected with general philosophy partly by its purposes but more directly by its methods. To explain this we need to look at the nature of philosophy as an enterprise.
In the past, it was thought to be the philosopher’s job to give a comprehensive and rational account of the nature of reality and of man’s place in the scheme of things, and to deal with issues like the existence of God, the immortality of the soul and the purpose of the universe (Hamm 1999 p. 13). The aspect of professional education revolves around a philosophical note that inquires the availability of education for every individual present in a specific setting. Furthermore, the philosophy of governed nature of education has been intricately remarked by great philosophers, Plato, Socrates and Aristotle as subjects of further inquiry.
Professional education is directed toward helping students acquire special competencies for diagnosing specific needs and for determining, recommending, and taking appropriate action. Professionals are the most highly educated and trained persons in the work force. There are actually 12. 5 million professionals inclined in the field of education and each requires to be governed by substantial standards and ideologies of philosophy of education (Hoberman and Mailick, 1994 p. 3).
The concept of education significantly renounces the attitude of every professionals involved to relate their ideals and conceptuals in the form of philosophical beliefs in order to implicate the standards and ideation governed by the universal principles, basic human rights, and the area of professionalism. Now, for philosophic purposes meaning as verbal equivalence is an inadequate conception and it is necessary – particularly, as we shall see, as far as philosophy of teaching is concerned – to recognize other kinds of meaning and to recognize the possibility of one kind being mistaken for another.
The matter is of sufficient importance to merit detailed treatment here and now (Brown and Woods, 1998 p. 5). It was Wittgenstein who drew attention to the connection between the meaning of words and their use and hence to the connection between different kinds of meaning and different uses of language (Hoberman and Mailick, 1994 p. 4). Thus, consider the seemingly fact-stating statement. “Education consists of molding individuals into obedient members of the slate”. A moment’s reflection shows that this statement is not a statement of fact but gives utterance to an evaluation – “Education ought to consist of…
” – on the part of the person making it. We need, then, to distinguish fact-stating language (we shall refer to it as the descriptive use of language) from the evaluative use of language (Brown and Woods, 1998 p. 5). As for the philosophy of facilitation, and the continuity of learning and the aspects of continuous teaching without regards to any exceptions as incurred by the society, divine law, and human rights. Every minority with no considerations to race, gender, and possibly realistic health conditions should be deprived with education.
The philosophy of education involves the general principle of conducting education as a means of providing universal treatment for the development implicated in a universal perspective. Furthermore, the philosophy of education, on the perspective of professionalism, involves that the educator must also be under the said umbrella of development and continuous learning despite of the governed tasks of teaching. Therefore, teaching, learning, and professionalism are intertwined in the overall concept of education and the philosophy governing these fields (Hamm 1999 p.
4). To comprehend the exact definitions and accounts of philosophy of education, it is a deemed requirement for professionals to instill such concepts on all domains of self, even though philosophy of education is remarked as simply the philosophy governing education (Hamm 1999 p. 5; Brown and Woods, 1998 p. 5). The distinction between descriptive and evaluative motive meaning is one that finds application in several branches of philosophy and perhaps most particularly in philosophy of education.
This is not surprising when we remember that much educational talk is shot through with considerations to do with value (Brown and Woods, 1998 p. 5). Some thinkers view this branch as one of the fields of expertise and a field to study. However, not all accounts render such field as qualified to be included in the branch of philosophy, and as for those who implicate themselves as philosophers of education, the universality and essence of these philosophies are held free and under democratic notion.
So perhaps the best way to start to clarify what philosophy of education is to state what it is not (Hamm 1999 p. 1). Many practically minded people in schools and faculties of education have thought long and hard and well about educational aims, curricular content anti-implementation, teaching and classroom strategies, and come up with a theory, or systems, of education around, which they plan their activities (Hamm 1999 p. 1). V. Conclusion In conclusion, public debates have been an important stimulus to philosophical
examination of educational issues, other philosophical sub-disciplines provide vital foundations for philosophy of teaching and facilitation, and the wealth of recent work on the history of philosophy – work that is both philosophically significant and seriously historical – has been salutary. In documenting the wealth of attention to educational questions through much of the history of philosophy, and in retrieving forgotten but valuable ways of thinking about education.
The education system in the United States remains evidently dynamic in nature with characteristics of diverse and multicultural denominations. The system continuously progress to neutral projections aiming at both improvements and degradations of standards; however, as with the study, the dynamic character and evolutions of education system greatly varies and dependent on the contributing aspects present in the external and internal environment of education. Indeed education itself must surely be seen as a field of study that involves a variety of approaches from a number of disciplines.
One consequence of weakening the influence on education of disciplines such as history, psychology, sociology, and philosophy has been the growth of pseudo-disciplines, approaches that lack the critical traditions of inquiry that are the source of coherence and rigor. They lack the body of literature with its community of academia, developed over a period of time, upon which any discipline must depend. Reference: 1. Barrow, R. , & Woods, G. (1998). An Introduction to Philosophy of Education. 2. Blackwell Publishing. Butler, N. (2007).
Education in the United States. J. B. Lyon Company. 3. Blake, N. (2003). The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education. 4. Demiashkevich, Michael (2003). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. Pp. 43-48American Book. New York. 5. Evans, M. D. (1998). Whitehead and Philosophy of Education: The Seamless Coat of Learning. 6. Herman, J. L. (2000). Making Schools Work for Underachieving Minority Students. Greenwood Publishing. 7. Hirst, P. , & White, P. (1998). Philosophy of Education: Major Themes in the Analytic Tradition. Routledge. 8.
Hoberman, S. , & Mailick, S. (1994). Professional Education in the United States: Experiential Learning, Issues, and Prospects. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. 9. Kucklick, B. (2002). A History of Philosophy in America, 1720-2000. Oxford University Press. 10. Peterson, Michael L. (2000). Philosophy of Education: Issues and Options. Pp. 64-69, InterVarsity Press. Downers Grove, IL. 11. Pijl etal, S. J. (1997). Inclusive Education: A Global Agenda. Routledge. 12. Rodopi. Hamm, C. M. (1999). Philosophical Issues in Education: An Introduction. Routledge.Sample Essay of PapersOwl.com