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The American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society estimates that about one-third of the deaths from cancer can be prevented, as they are related to lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Early detection and screening mechanisms are obviously key, but the data suggests that they have only been somewhat effective. What are some ideas and strategies that could perhaps lead to a further reduction in preventable cancer deaths?

Aside from the lifestyle habits that usually cause cancer, it has been identified that exposure to environmental hazardous wastes, weak immune system and overexposure to radiation all contribute to cancer. These factors must then be controlled, if not totally extinguished in order to reduce the number of cancer deaths. It was discussed that the chemicals from the environment indirectly increase cancer risk by contributing to immune and endocrine dysfunctions that can influence the effect of carcinogens in a human body (Reuben, 2010), therefore it is deemed necessary to give much attention to a person’s environment in preventing cancer.

Living in a world filled with various toxic wastes leads us to the concept that preventing cancer is similar to avoiding exposure to these. This can be done by properly disposing pharmaceuticals and other household chemicals, turning off lights when not in use and avoiding exposure to pesticides (Reuben, 2010). Another cause of cancer is the weak immune system, thus, cancer vaccines (U. S. National Cancer Institute, 2009) are now available to lessen the patient’s risk from developing cancer by enhancing the immune system. Last is acquiring appropriate precautions from overexposure to radiation.

This can be done by wearing headsets when talking to using the mobile phone, checking home radon levels, and by wearing protective clothing and sunscreen when outdoors. • How do corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and b2-agonists work to relieve the symptoms of asthma? What is the difference between a long-term controller and a short-term reliever? What is status asthmaticus and how does it differ from asthma? Corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers and b2-agonists are some of the drugs that are being used to alleviate asthma attacks that a patient experiences.

Corticosteroids act mainly within the pulmonary branches that become inflamed whenever asthma occurs. Inflammation within the passages of the lungs are decreased as the inhaled corticosteroid passes through it (Nenita, 2006). Meanwhile, leukotriene inhibitors are used to prevent the leukotriene substances which are potent bronchoconstrictors that also dilate blood vessels and alter permeability (Smeltzer et al. , 2008). These are substances produced by the body in response to allergens; inhibiting these substances will lessen the inflammation of the lung passages.

On the other hand, beta2-agonists relieve asthmatic symptoms by promoting the relaxation of the bronchial passages that are experiencing bronchospasm. Dilation of these passages will give more space for air flow and breathing. The difference of the short-term reliever from the long-term controller is the purpose of administering these medications. The short-term reliever is for the immediate treatment of asthma symptoms and exacerbations, while the long-term controller is to achieve and maintain control of persistent asthma.

Asthma and status asthmaticus are different because status asthmaticus is a severe form of asthma. Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchial airways that lead to hyperresponsiveness, mucosal edema, and mucus production. The inflammation causes recurrent episodes of cough, chest tightness, wheezing and dyspnea (Smeltzer et al. , 2008). On the other hand, status asthmaticus is a severe and persistent form of asthma that does not respond to conventional therapy. The attacks can occur anytime and can progress to asphyxation within a short period of time.

The patient usually manifests symptoms such as with asthma, which include labored breathing, engorged neck veins, wheezing, and prolonged exhalation (Nenita, 2006). • There has been a recent controversy over the use of anti-depressant medications in children and adolescents. What are some of the new rules that the FDA has passed? Do you agree or disagree with these new FDA regulations? Some of the antidepressant drugs that were deemed to be safe among adults cause a great increment of suicidal behaviors among children. Around three children are at risk for every 100 people treated with the antidepressants (Domebeck, 2004).

This situation occurs due to the inadequate studies that the pharmaceutical companies perform for their medications. Since some physicians also prescribe such medications even to children, these drugs therefore cause a great deal of suicidal cases among children. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated the said occurrence and released an action to solve the said predicament. Revision of the black box warning on the label of the medication was proposed among pharmaceutical companies making all antidepressant medications (U. S. FDA, 2007).

It aims to include warnings about suicidality, which is the increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior, among teens and young adults aging up to 24 usually during the initial treatment. I definitively agree that people should be made aware of the side effects of the drugs that they are taking. Many people who are generally suffering from depression mainly benefit from this medication, and from this thought, we can not cease having this drug for people even though it has disadvantages too.

Thus, the best thing that can be done is to make it sure that people and practitioners are aware of the side effects of these drugs and make them cautious about it. References Domebeck, M. (2004, October 8) ‘Kids Antidepressant Meds and the FDA’. Mentalhelp. net. Retrieved from http://www. mentalhelp. net Nenita, S. M. (2006) Manual of Nursing Practice. (8th ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Reuben, S. for The President’s Cancer Panel. (2010, April). Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What Can We Do Now. Annual Report 2008-2009.

Retrieved from http://www. scribd. com/doc/32183855/Reducing-Enivirnmental-Cancer-Risks Smeltzer, S. C. , Bare, G. B. , Hinkle, J. L. and Cheever, K. H. (2008) Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. (11th ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. U. S. Food and Drug Administration. (2007, May 2). ‘FDA proposes new warnings about suicidal thinking, behavior in young adults who take antidepressant medications’. Retrieved from http://www. fda. gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/ PressAnnouncements/2007/ucm108905. htm U. S. National Cancer Institute (2009, March 17). Cancer Vaccines. Retrieved from http://www. cancer. gov/cancertopics/factsheet/cancervaccine

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