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The Mobility enhancements for MPLS

The thesis presents the Mobility enhancements for MPLS. That is to say it researchers on the Mobility enhancements of the MPLS-MIP combination networks. As given in the abstract, the wireless communications in the recent years have gone a drastic change in terms of coverage and the range of applications supported. The growth of internet is also similar to that of cellular networks. The mobile Internet is fast becoming an industry standard for wireless commutation.

In order to create a cost effective wireless IP network, many small network domains need to be created which should be interconnected as well as connected to commercial cellular networks. Researchers have proposed several solutions to counter these issues. In addition to coverage and traffic, there is also a significant research done on the QoS support, security and efficient micro-mobility management in mobile IP networks. There are several mechanisms proposed for this purpose such as: MPLS, Integrated Services, and Differential services.

While the second and third generation of wireless networks offers seamless mobility and QoS support, they do not address the all-important security issue and are also built on costly connection-oriented networking. One of the most popular set of solutions involves deploying MPLS in the core network, which would converge the transport infrastructure for the mobile services on to the common packet core network, while some others keep suggesting improvements in the Mobile IP protocol itself.

In addition to this, mobility is increasingly becoming an issue with the wireless networks, which has necessitated an integration of MIP and MPLS protocols. This integration is also important for providing fast switching and scalability over networks. The integrating would also combine the MPLS traffic engineering functionalities of with local area mobility technology. In theory, this would alleviate the problems of IP-in-IP encapsulation and triangular routing. Hence, MPLS is considered to simplify the packet switching process over the Mobile IP network. • • Motivation The present day wireless networks require seamless mobility.

In addition to this, they also have advanced applications such as multimedia services, which require strict QoS requirements in terms of loss and delay. The transmission of these services over the IP-based networks necessitates the forwarding of IP datagrams towards the destination host in a fast and efficient way. This requirement is generally handled by techniques such as MPLS switching. MPLS provides a level of VPN service because by dissociating the act of forwarding IP packets from the contents of the IP header, MPLS can carry private address space traffic over a traffic network.

In essence, MPLS provides switched and virtual circuit capabilities over an IP core. The integration MPLS and MIP has been proposed by many researchers, and various improvements have seen suggested to improve other issues such as (Qos) security etc. The motivation behind the dissertation is to present a detailed analysis of these protocols, to rank them according to their performance under a common network-scenario, and to suggest further improvements in the results proposed. • • • Challenge – The primary challenge in the research is the integration between MIP and MPLS protocols.

As the subsequent sections would describe, the integration itself is of two types: overlay and integrated, each with their own advantages and limitations. While one provides compatibility and ease of operations, it is complex to maintain and deploy; the other solution is fast and provides other advantages, but there are many compatibility issues as the protocol needs to be designed from scratch. One of the category of methods had to be chosen first, even before going for the solutions themselves, based on their merits, and then the final solution would give certain changes in the protocol itself, to take care of the limitations.

In addition the number of solutions to be analyzed was also a challenge. • • • Objective – The objective of the research to find the most optimum solution for mobility management in MPLS. The research was done both theoretically and analytically and the best solutions are considered in the end for their advantages and weaknesses. Finally, improvements are suggested in the selected solutions to take care of their limitations • Contribution The handover and mobility related solution, which are analyzed, are not fundamentally new, neither it is a new invention.

However, this thesis identifies another potential area for improvement. First of all, there is no single paper, which gives a comparative analysis of all the protocols. All the researchers have till now chosen a way to go ahead, and then compare it with the existing results. This paper takes a slightly different approach, and hence makes the following contributions. • Analyzes all the protocols, whether MIP or MPLS theoretically. Segregates the protocols based on macro and micro mobility, integrated and overlay methods of integration of MIP and MPLS, and the MPLS messaging protocols used

• Analyzes all the protocols under common scenarios. This is done by simulating the results in NS2, and also finding the corresponding mathematical expressions and assigning values to them. While the MIP schemes have been simulated in NS2, for MMPLS, only mathematical analysis has been performed in terms of handover delay, registration and packet delivery. • Performs a comprehensive comparison of the results, to find the best solution in terms of mobility • Also, suggests improvements in the selected protocol to enhance other characteristics such as QoS, Security etc.

• • Thesis organization The thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is the literature review, which covers the works done by various researchers, and briefly describes the various protocols. This chapter starts with a quick description of the various extensions of MIP and MPLS protocols and then goes on to present the works of various researchers in the area of mobility enhancements to MPLS. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the research methodology used for the thesis.

The chapter will describe the protocols that will be analyzed in the later sections, explain the various parameters which will be analyzed, and will also explain the scenario diagram which has been used as the basis for performing the analysis and simulation. Chapter 4 gives a comparison of the selected protocols described in Chapter 3. The chapter begins by outlining the advantages of the various MIP and Mobile MPLS protocols. Next the various MIP-based protocols are analyzed theoretically, and the best solution is given. After this all the Mobile MPLS based protocols are analyzed theoretically for their advantages and weaknesses.

These are summarized in the end of the chapter, and the best solution in terms of theoretical comparison is presented. Chapter 5 gives a mathematical analysis of the MIP and MPLS protocols, by deriving the equations for MIP and MPLS under the common scenario, explained in the previous chapter, in terms of the common parameters like handover latency, registration time, packet delivery etc. that have also been described in the previous section. This chapter also contains a graphical comparison of the MIP solutions in the NS2 simulator.

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