The physical arrangements
The physical aspects of a job are obvious and visible; consequently, these were the first to be the studied by psychologists in the industry. Many research studies have been conducted on lighting, temperature, humidity, noise level, location of equipment, and working hours to determine their effects on production levels. Because of this vast amount of research, numerous guidelines have been made available to aid in the design layout of the physical work environment. Additional research is needed however, as new jobs and new methods of production are created.
Since the late 1940s, it has been recognized that the physical environment would have to undergo a drastic change to have any significant effect on production. Note the matter of temperature levels. In most work environments, for example, the temperature would have to become extremely cold or extremely for the workers’ output to be greatly affected. The widespread use of air conditioning as well as improvement such as sound proofing has reduced the extreme variations that used to mark many jobs. Modern technology thus produced relatively stable physical conditions conducive to work.
Attention has shifted, therefore, to less tangible and more complex social and psychological conditions of the work environment. The psychological climate of a job, including fatigue and boredom, is now recognized as more important than the physical climate because psychological conditions are subject to greater variation. However, just as features of the physical environment can be manipulated to produce more efficient and satisfying work, so can the psychological environment be controlled for optimum results once reach has determined the desirable aspects of a job’s psychological environment.
How do cognitions influence stress? Stress is a psychological factor and a common feature of almost every kind of work. Inside the body, dramatic physiological changes take place under stress. Adrenalin, released from the adrenal glands speeds up all bodily functions. Blood pressure rises, heart rate increases, and extra sugar is released to the bloodstream. The increased circulation of the blood brings additional energy to the brain and muscles, making us more alert and stronger so that we can cope with the sudden emergency.
Cognitions, refer to the mental processing a person undergoes which varies from individual to individual. Hence, there are various personality types that are vulnerable to stress and susceptible to burnout as well as brave physical effects such as heart attacks. Such as Type A people are said to be highly prone to heart attack and have a very high competitive drive; a constant sense of time urgency, high level of hostility and aggression, and much anger and impatience. Type B persons lack these characteristics and are much less vulnerable to the effect of stress.
People high in hardiness –a belief that they can control events in their lives, a deep commitment to work, and a view of change as challenging rather than frightening are less vulnerable to the effect of stress. This is illustrative of how cognitions affect or influence stress. What role does social support have on stress and disease, and how might this factor into stress in the workplace? Social support can reduce one’s vulnerability to stress. Organizations can enhance social support by facilitating the cohesiveness of work-groups and by training the supervisors to be supportive of their subordinates.
To add, it has something to do with how the worker is able to cope with many of the changes that he/she is undergoing, whether these are positive or negative events. For instance in emotional climate control, an organization can provide sufficient support to enable employees to adapt to change in a sense by enhancing a climate of esteem and regard for employees and by allowing them to participate in all decisions involving change in their work and in the structure of the organization.
Specifically though, family support, close friendships, and as surveys show, a rich church life is the strongest source of support for a person in need of assistance during stressful situations. Reference: 1. Landy, F. J. 1985. Psychology of Behavior. 3rd Ed. Dorsey Press. 2. Baron, R. 1983. Behavior in Organizations: Understanding and Managing the Human Side of Work. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Sample Essay of AssignmentExpert.com